Chapter 1

matih smrtih samjnä cintäbhinibodha ity anarthäntaram  (13)

tad indriya-anindriya-nimittam (14)

avagraha-ihä-aväya-dhäranäh (15)

bahu-bahuvidha-ksipra-anisrita-asandigdha-dhruvänäm setaränäm (16)

bahu-bahuvidha-ksipra-anihsrta-anukta-dhruvänäm setaränäm (16)

arthasya (17)

vyanjanasyävagrahah (18)

na caksur-anindriyäbhyäm (19)

shrutam matippurvam dvy-aneka-dvädaiabhedam (20)

matih smrtih samjnä cintäbhinibodha ity anarthäntaram  (13)

 

Memory (remembrance, smruti), recognition (samjnä), reasoning (inductive reasoning, chintä) and apprehension (deduction, abhinibodh) incorporate the various aspects of sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge. (13)

In other words, Mati , smruti , samjnä , chintä , abhinibodha  are synonyms with each other. (13)

The subject matter of Mati Jnän is relating to present time.

To recall an object experienced, known or heard earlier is smruti or memory; so that has something past for its object.

When an object is seen, it is recognized that it was the same object which was seen before – this kind of linkage between the past and the present is called samjnä  or recognition. To detect identity (connection) between an object experienced earlier and one that is being experienced at present is samjnä or pratyabhijnäna  i.e. recognition; so that has something past as well as something present for its object.

Lastly, to think of an object that is to appear in future is chintä or anticipation; so that has something future for its object.

The respective objects of the types of cognition mati, smruti, samjnä and chintä are mutually different and so also some of their means of origination. But in the case of each the internal means of origination is one and the same, ‑ viz. the suppression‑cum‑disassociation of the mati-jnänävaraniya karma. It is keeping this commonness in mind that mati, etc. are here said to be mutually synonymous.

Abhinibodha is a generic term and it stands for each of the types of cognition, mati, smruti, samjnä and chintä; that is to say, all the types of cognition that originate as a result of the suppression‑cum‑disassociation of the mati-jnänävaraniya  karma are commonly called abhinibodha, while the words mati etc. stand for this or that particular type of cognition thus originating.

What is the cause of Matijnäna?

tad indriya-anindriya-nimittam (14)

 

The mati‑jnäna originates through the instrumentality of the indriyas  or sense‑organs and anindriya  or not‑sense‑organ. (14)

Sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge is produced by the senses and the mind. (14)

Sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge arises from the senses alone, the mind alone or the two acting together.  There are beings without a mind such as plants, trees and some lower animals whose knowledge is necessarily through their senses alone.  Plants and trees have only one sense, the touch (tactile) sense, and so their perception is produced by touch alone.

In human beings, however, sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge is sometimes produced by the joint activity of the senses and the mind and at other times by the activity of the mind alone.  For instance, the sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge that “this is a table" is produced by the collaboration of the sense of sight and the mind whereas remembering what the table looks like requires only the mind to act.  There is also a variety of sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge that is instinctive, such as the ability of a plant to grow towards the light or a creeper towards a support.

The word indriya  is derived from Indra. Indra, here, means the self. The self is - of the nature of knowledge.  When there is the suppression-cum-disassociation of karmas obscuring knowledge, the self by itself is unable to know the objects.  Sense-organ (indriya) acts as the instrument of knowledge for the self. Anindriya, mana, antahkarana are synonyms.  Anindriya is the negation of sense (indriya). 

Question : When eye etc. on the one hand and the mana on the other are equally an instrument of mati‑jnäna, then why call the former sense‑organs and the latter not‑sense‑organ?

Answer : Eye etc. are an external instrument while the mana is an internal instrument. This difference is the ground of the distinction between the designations indriya and anindriya.

The cause of sensory knowledge has been understood.  Its divisions or stages are mentioned in the next sutra.

avagraha-ihä-aväya-dhäranäh (15)

 

Sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge develops through the four stages of inarticulate sensation (Avgraha), specific inquiry (speculation, Ihä), articulate comprehension (Apäya) and imprint (retention, Dhäranä). (15)

Inarticulate sensation (Avgraha)  is the first awareness of an object when it (the object) is contacted by one of the senses or mind.  There is no clarity regarding what is the name or the class of the object or what the object is. This involves a minimum amount of sensation about the object like something was touched in the dark but it is not known what was touched.

Specific inquiry (speculation, Ihä)  is the curiosity to know more about the object, to identify its features.  The object touched in the dark – is it a rope or a snake? This is an example of specific inquiry, Ihä.

Articulate comprehension (perceptual judgment, Apäya [Aväya])  arises from specific inquiry.  After specific inquiry and with further reasoning, examination and thinking, it is determined what the object is and what it is not. The object touched in the dark is a rope not a snake. If it was a snake, it would have made some noise, or hissed or would have moved away. Apäya  is cognition, a definitive identification of the object, understanding both what it is and what it is not. 

Imprint (retention, Dhäranä)  is the retention of the identification of the object, creating an impression in the mind which is experienced as memory. Dhäranä  is the cause of its un-forgetfulness. “This is the same rope I saw last night.”

Thus the four stages constitute the formula for complete mental activity relating to Mati Jnäna.

The Sub‑Types of Avagraha etc. :

bahu-bahuvidha-ksipra-anisrita-asandigdha-dhruvänäm setaränäm (16)

bahu-bahuvidha-ksipra-anihsrta-anukta-dhruvänäm setaränäm (16)

 

The four forms of Mati Jnäna - avagraha, ihä, apäya and dhäranä  are grasped (apprehended) twelve ways: six pure mental faculties - Bahu, Bahuvidha, Kshipra, Anisrita, Asandigdha (anukta), druva  and six impure faculties – Abahu, Abahuvidha, Akshipra, Nisrita, Sandigdha (Nukta), Adruva. (16)

Setarä is intended to include the opposites.

Bahu & Abahu (alpa)  (grasping of more & grasping of less): Bahu means many, multiple and bulk. Here, it means to know the objects that are many, multiple or bulk. To know one, few or less objects is called alpa (abahu).

Bahuvidha & Abahuvidha (Ekavidha)  (grasping of many kinds & grasping of one kind) : Vidha denotes kinds or forms. Some grasp the objects of many forms or complex in nature, this is called Bahuvidha. While some grasp the objects that are of one kind or simple in nature and this is called Abahuvidha.

Kshipra & Akshipra  (grasping of an object quickly & grasping of an object slowly): Ksipra means knowing quickly and Akshipra means knowing slowly. 

Anisrita & Nisrita  (grasping of a partially revealed object & grasping of fully revealed object): There are two meanings of each word. Anisrita means knowing things without any sign or symbol – knowing independently, while Nisrita means knowing things by its sign or symbol. Another meaning: Anisrita denotes that the entire object is not seen, that is part of it is seen and part of it is hidden – partially exposed. Nisrita denotes that the entire object is seen – fully exposed.

Asandigdha & Sandigdha  (grasping without doubt & grasping with doubt): When things are known without any doubt (unambiguous) is called Asandigdha. When things are known but has some doubt (ambiguous) is called Sandigdha.

Anuktä & Nukta  (grasping of implied object & grasping of expressed object):  In SS, Anukta is used instead of Asandigdha. Anukta means not spoken - heard (implied but not expressed) and Nukta means spoken - heard (expressed). 

Druva & Adruva  (grasping of a lasting nature & grasping of transient nature): Dhruva is continual cognition of an object as it really is.  Adruva means inconstant – mode.

Each of the above twelve arises in the case of each of the five senses and the mind. 

The first six kinds like Bahu, etc arise because of high degree of disassociation-cum-suppression of karmas.  But it is not so in the case of their opposites. 

Bahu, alpa (abahu), bahuvidha and ekavidha (abahuvidha) ‑ these four are based on a variation of the object concerned, the rest are based on that of the suppression‑cum‑disassociation of the Karma concerned.

The four forms avagraha etc. each possibly born of one of the six means ‑ viz. the five sense‑organs and mana‑make the total twenty‑four (6 x 4 = 24), and these twenty four each possibly varying in twelve ways as just elaborated make the total two hundred eighty eight (24 x 12 = 288).

arthasya (17)

 

The thing perceived continues to be the object at all four stages of sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge. (17)

Through the four forms of mati-jnäna ‑ viz. avagraha, ihä, apäya, dhäranä ‑ an artha ‑ that is, an entity of an object is grasped. (17)

These four kinds of sensory knowledge relate to objects.  The object of the senses is called a substance.  Artha means entity. Now an entity is inclusive of a dravya or substance that is something generic and the corresponding paryäyas or modes that are something specific.

Avagraha, Ihä etc. chiefly grasp modes (Paryäya)  and not a substance (dravya)  as a whole. The substance itself they only notice through the medium of its modes (paryäya). That is so because the sense‑organs and mana have modes (paryäya) for their chief object. Of course, the modes (paryäya) are parts of a substance. And so when a sense‑organ or mana  notices the modes that constitute its particular object it partly notices the corresponding substance itself in the form of these modes. Since modes and the substance are not separate, through modes one recognizes the substance as well.

For example, the particular object of the visual sense‑organ are color, configuration etc. which are so many modes of the material substance. So when an eye grasps a mango fruit what happens is that it notices the latter's modes like color, configuration etc. And since its color, configuration etc. are not separate from a mango it can roughly be said that the mango has been seen by the eye, but we soul remember that the eye has not grasped the mango as a whole. For apart from color, configuration etc. the mango contains numerous other modes like touch, taste, smell etc. which an eye is incapable of grasping.

For no sense‑organ taken singly can grasp all the modes belonging to an entity. Even the auditory sense‑organ grasps only the mode of the form of sound belonging to the material particles that have assumed the shape of speech and no other mode belonging to them. Similarly, the mana too reflects over only some particular aspects of an object; for certainly it is incapable of simultaneously reflecting over all the aspects of this object. All this goes to prove that all the four forms of cognition avagraha etc. that are born of a sense‑organ or mana chiefly have a mode for their object while they notice the corresponding substance only through the medium of this mode.

The present aphorism gives out something general, the preceding one something specific. For the present aphorism generally lays down that cognition of the form of avagraha etc. grasps an entity in the form of a mode or of a substance, while in the preceding aphorism the same entity has been specified in the form of bahu, alpa etc. through an analysis based on the consideration of number, form etc.

Do these (avagraha etc.) occur in the case of all the senses and the mind?  Or is there any difference?

vyanjanasyävagrahah (18)

 

The bare contact of a sense‑organ with its object is called vyanjana  and when vyanjana takes place it limits only to avagraha and there is no further stages of development like ihä, apäya & dhäranä. (18)

Vyanjan is apprehension (avagraha) of indistinct things.

Now, the objects of sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge are divided into two categories: the thing comprehended (artha) and the thing barely contacted (vyanjana). Thus, avagraha is divided in to two sub-types: artha-avagraha and vyanjana-avagraha.

Bare contact with a thing takes place at the moment it reaches the senses.  This is the stage of inarticulate sensation (avagraha).  This contact awareness gradually proceeds towards the plane of consciousness, that is from the senses alone to the mind and the senses.

The awakening of consciousness is followed by the other three stages of sensory (empirical, mati) knowledge - specific inquiry (ihä), cognition (apäya) and imprint (Dhäranä) all of which are concerned with the object alone. 

The inarticulate sensation (avagraha) relates to both the contact with the object, and the object.  In other words, there are two phases of the object, its initial appearance and its continued existence.  Inarticulate sensation (avagraha) notes both the initial appearance (vyanjan) and the continued existence (artha), whereas the latter three stages recognize only the continued existence (artha).

The difference between arthävagraha and vyanjävagraha  lies in distinct and indistinct apprehension.  How?  It is as in the wetting of a new clay vessel.  For instance, the new clay vessel does not get wet by two or three drops of water.  But, when it is moistened again and again, it gets wet.  Similarly, matter in the modes of sounds and so on does not become distinct in the first two or three instants.  But, 'when it is apprehended again and again, it becomes distinct.  Therefore, there is indistinct apprehension prior to distinct apprehension.  Distinct apprehension is arthävagraha.  And speculation etc. do not arise from indistinct apprehension.

Does indistinct apprehension occur in the case of all the senses?  No.

na caksur-anindriyäbhyäm (19)

 

Inarticulate sensation of a barely contacted thing (vyanjan) is not possible for the eye or the mind. (19)

Indistinct apprehension (vyanjan) does not arise by means of the eyes and the mind. (19)

In the case of the visual sense‑organ and of the mana there takes place no vyanjana. (19)

Inarticulate sensation of a barely contacted thing (vyanjan) is possible only through actual physical contact and so is confined to the four senses: hearing, taste, smell and touch.  The eye and the mind comprehend their object from a distance without physical contact.

The eyes perceive without contacting an object, which is fit and which is placed in the vicinity in proper perspective and revealed by external light.  Similarly, there is no contact between the mind and the object.  Hence, there is no indistinct apprehension in the case of the sense of sight and the mind.

This bare contact, technically called vyanjana grows so much mature that there takes place a general apprehension, technically called arthavagraha.

The four forms arthavagraha etc. each possibly produced by one of the six instruments ‑ viz. the five sense‑organs and mana, yield the number twenty‑four (4 x 6 = 24). To them are to be added four vyanjanavagrahas produced by the four sense‑organs belonging to the class, thus the total number becomes twenty‑eight (24 + 4 = 28). Each of these twenty eight can possibly have objects belonging to those twelve varieties bahu, alpa, bahuvidha, alpavidha, etc. and thus we get the grand total three hundred thirty six (28 x 12 = 336). Of course, this enumeration of sub‑types is based on a rough consideration. For as a matter of fact there are innumerable such sub‑types depending on the clarity or otherwise of the accessories like light etc., the multiplicity of objects, the diversity of the suppression‑cum‑disassociation of the karma concerned.

 

Mind

Vision

Touch

Taste

Smell

Hearing

 

Bahu

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Bahuvidha

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Kshipra

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Anisrita

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Asandigdha (Anukta)

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Druva

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Abahu

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Abahuvidha

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Akshipra

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Nisrita

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Sandigdha (Nukta)

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Adruva

4

4

5

5

5

5

 

Total……

48

48

60

60

60

60

336

Note: 4 means Arthävagraha, Ihä, Apäya and Dhäranä. And 5 means Vyanjanävagraha, Arthävagraha, Ihä, Apäya and Dhäranä.

Two types of Mati Jnäna:

Mati Jnäna can be classified in to two types: 1) Shrut Nisrit Mati Jnäna  and 2) Ashrut Nisrit Mati Jnäna .

Shrut Nisrit Mati Jnäna is the knowledge which derived based on what was known previously, heard previously or learn previously. The above 336 sub-types are of this type.

Ashrut Nisrit Mati Jnäna is the knowledge which is learned a new and not based on previously acquired knowledge. There are four sub-types to this category: 1) Autpätiki : Sensory knowledge acquired upon completion of a special situation. 2) Vainäyiki  : Sensory knowledge acquired while serving spiritual people like Sädhu, Sädhvi, etc. 3) Kärmiki : Sensory knowledge acquired while performing an activity or studying and 4) Pärinämiki : Sensory knowledge acquired through experience after some time.

Including this four, there are a total of 340 sub-types of Mati Jnäna.

Sensory knowledge has been described with its definition and divisions.  Now it is time to define scriptural knowledge with its divisions.

shrutam matippurvam dvy-aneka-dvädaiabhedam (20)

 

Scriptural knowledge (Shrutajnäna) is invariably preceded by sensory knowledge (matijnäna). It is of two types, many types, twelve types. 20

 

Mati‑jnäna is the cause while shrutajnäna is its effect. Mati‑jnäna nourishes and supplements shruta‑jnäna. However, mati‑jnäna is an external cause for shruta‑jnäna. The internal cause of shruta‑jnäna is the suppression‑cum‑disassociation of the concerned shrutajnänävaraniya karma. If there is no suppression‑cum‑disassociation of the concerned shrutajnänävaraniya karma, there will be no shruta‑jnäna after mati-jnäna.

 

For scriptural knowledge is preceded by scriptural knowledge also.  Some person perceives through his ears sound molecules consisting of sentences, composed of words, which in turn are composed of letters.  This is sensory knowledge.  For example, someone perceives a sound of ‘jar’ – this is the sensory knowledge. Next he derives the first shruta knowledge of the meaning of the word 'jar'.  Then, if he gets hints of the function of the jar, with the knowledge of the jar, he acquires the second knowledge of the function of the jar such as storing water etc.  Then scriptural knowledge (Shruta) is preceded by scriptural knowledge (Shruta). 

 

The scriptural knowledge is of two, several and twelve kinds.  What is the basis of the distinction?

 

Here Shruta‑jnäna is the subject of the knowledge revealed by tirthankars.

 

The distinction is based on the kinds of teachers.  The teachers are of three kinds, namely the Omniscient Tirthankara, his disciples (shruta kevalis) and the later preceptors (Acäryas).  The scriptures were really taught by the Omniscient Tirthankara, gifted with perfect knowledge of unimaginable power and splendor.  The Lord is free from all kinds of impurities and is possessed of direct and perfect knowledge.  Hence His word is authoritative.  The Lord's chief disciples called Ganadharas gifted with vast knowledge recollect the import of the Lord's teachings and compose works called angas.  These are also authoritative, as these are only interpretations of the word of the Lord.  Later on shorter works such as Dasävaikälika are written by the later preceptors to benefit their disciples, whose lives are shorter and whose intellect and energy are less potent owing to the nature of the times.  These also constitute valid knowledge, as these are in fact the same as the angas but in a condensed form, just as the water of the Milky Ocean taken in a jar.

 

Shruta‑jnäna is of two types: Angapravista  and Angabähya .

 

Angapravista : The knowledge revealed by the tirthankaras which was received by their highly intelligent direct disciples designated ganadharas and was rendered in them the form of the twelve Sutra‑texts technically called anga is anga‑pravista.

 

Angabähya : The learned ascetics who followed ganadharas composed Angabähya, consisting of many texts, for the benefit of their disciples whose power of understanding was inferior.  The ascetics who led Angabähya are said to have complete or partial knowledge of the earlier literature.

 

Twelve Angapravista: Acära, Sutrakrta, Sthäna, Samaväya, Vyäkhyäprajnapti, jnätradharmakathä, Upäsakädhyayana, Antakrddasa, Anuttaraupapädikadasa, Prasnavyäkarana, Vipäkasutra and Drstiväda.  Drstiväda is of five divisions- Parikarina, Sutra, Prathamänuyoga, Purvagata and Culikä.  Purvagata is of fourteen sections-Utpädpurva, Agräyaniya, Viryänupraväda, Astinastipraväda, Jnänapraväda, Satyapraväda, Ätmapraväda, Karmapraväda, Pratyäkhyänanämadheya, Vidyänupraväda, Kalyänanämadheya, Pränäväya, Kriyävisäla and Lokabindusära.

 

Similarly Sämäyika, Chaturvimsatistava, Vandanaka, Pratikramana, Kayotsarga and Pratyäkhyana ‑ these six Ävasyaka texts on the one hand and Dasävaikälika, Uttaradhyayana, Dasäshrutaskandha, Kalpa, Vyavahära, Nisttha and Rsibhasita, etc. these books on the other are included in the class angabähya.

 

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