Shraman Bhagwan Mahavir expounded and established the Jain philosophy and communicated it to his first disciple, Indrabhuti Gautam and ten other Ganadhars (Chief disciples) in three phrases which constitute the foundation of the Jain philosophy; and lays down its essentials. These three phrases are known as Tripati.
2) Vighaneyi Va – Old mode of the matter vanishes [This is called Vyay or Lay which denotes disappearance of the old mode. ]
3) Dhuveyi Va – Original qualities of the matter remain constant. [This is called Dhrauvya which denotes the permanence of matter. ]
Though the matter may assume different forms at different times, it never loses its own essential qualities (Guna). The Jain term for such matter is sat (literally, being). This term denotes a matter that has three aspects: substance (Dravya), quality (guna), and mode (paryaya). The matter, while retaining its own qualities, undergoes modifications (pariNäm) in the form of acquiring (utpäd) new modes (paryaya or bhäva) and losing (vyaya) old modes at each moment. Production (acquiring new modes) and destruction (losing old modes) are endless processes. But on account of these changes, the substance does not experience any loss in its original qualities ((guna).
Substance as Dravya remains permanent and undestroyable. But changes occur; old forms are destroyed and new ones come into being. For this reason, the Jainism does not consider any substance either as always Permanent or as always transitory. The destruction of any thing, that we notice, is not the destruction of the substance. It is only a change of mode, the transformation.
1. A bar of gold has its own original qualities. That bar can be converted into a chain. In that case, the shape of the bar is destroyed and a new shape (chain) has been produced. However the qualities of gold remain unchanged. Now if we melt the chain and make a bangle (bangadi) out of it, then we destroy the chain (an old form) and produce a bangadi (a new form). Again the inherent qualities of the gold remain unchanged. Therefore, the bar, chain and bangadi are transient forms (Paryaya) while gold is the matter (Dravya) which remains constant..
2. A living being through the process of growth, undergoes various changes, such as childhood, youth, and old age. These changes are the natural modifications of the living being. Childhood, youth, and old age are transient forms (Paryaya) of a living being. The soul of the living being is permanent substance (Dravya). Similarly, when we die, we will be born in another body. Therefore, the body is also a transient form while our soul is the permanent substance (Dravya).
3. A soul is a substance (Dravya) that has innumerable qualities such as knowledge (Jnän), bliss (Änanda) and energy (Virya). The knowledge quality, for example, may increase or decrease, but there is never a time when the soul is without knowledge; otherwise it would become, by definition, a non-soul, a lifeless material.
According to the Jainism, the number of substances existing at present, were existing in the past and will continue to exist in future. There cannot be any increase or decrease in that number. All the transformations take place according to their properties and potentialities; and in course of time, one form may get destroyed and cease to exist and another form may emerge. But Dravya remains constant