Äsrav  &  Samvar (Influx of Karma & its prevention)

5) Asrav of Karma.. 1

Causes of Äsrav. 2

Types of Äsrav. 35

6) Samvar (Stoppage of Karma) 37

Causes of Samvar. 39

Types of Samvar. 49


5) Asrav of Karma

According to Jainism, Äsrav is the cause for the cycle of birth and death, and Samvar  and Nirjarä are the causes of liberation. Living beings are like a pond.. Punya and PÄP are the inlets. Inflow of water through the inlets is equivalent to Äsrav . To plug the inlets is Samvar. To get the water out of the pond is Nirjarä. The water inside the pond is the bondage of Karma. Empty pond is Moksha.


Through Äsrav , one is letting in Karma in his life. To stop the inflow, one has to close the doors of Äsrav . After this, one has to endeavor to get rid of the previously accumulated Karma through Nirjarä. Once, he eradicates all Karmas, he will be liberated.




















Causes of Äsrav

Äsrav is the entrance for Karmas to enter through. There are five entrances through which Karma is acquired by the soul. The Jiva possesses 10 vitalities (Prän): five sense-organs, and the powers of the body, speech and mind; vitality pertaining to life-span; and the power of respiration. Because of the misuse of these 10 vitalities (Prän), the Jiva is bound by Karmas.


There are following five causes for the influx of Karmas: False belief, vowlessness,  negligence, passions and Activities.


1. False belief (Mithyätva): Mithyätva (False Belief or Delusion; Mithyä = wrong, tva = ness; Mithyätva = Wrongness) - it means  having faith in false God, wrong teacher and wrong  Dharma is Mithyätva. Kudeva (False God) is he who has attachment, hatred, desire, anger, miserliness, ridiculing propensity, fear, ignorance etc. Kuguru: (Wrong teacher) is he who does not practice non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy and non-possessiveness, who keeps with him, wealth and woman; makes others keep them; approves such actions; who uses sentient water, fire and vegetation; who cooks food; who asks specifically for the food to be cooked for him; and who approves the cooking of food. Such a person is a wrong guide. Kudharma (False Religion) is that which is devoid of Samyag Darshan (the right faith), Samyag Jnän (the right knowledge) and Samyak Chäritra, (the right character); which does not explain the real nature of Jiva and Ajiva and which deems it right to enjoy sensual pleasures; to have passions and to commit sins. Having faith in such God, guide and Dharma; having partiality for them; and interest in them constitute Mithyätva.


There are five type of Mithyätva: 1) Abhigrähik Mithyätva (Absolutist or Fanatic false faith): This belief involves one sided attitude, one sided view, sticking to a false belief like there is no soul, no Karma or killing inferior living beings is acceptable. This means having fanatic faith and interest in a false Dharma. Believing fanatically that his/her Dharma alone is right and does not accept the true Dharma expounded by the omniscient.. Such person may not know what is the right belief. 2) Abhiniveshik Mithyätva (Perverse or Prejudicial faith): This involves intentionally sticking to a wrong belief or not accepting the right belief. For example, monks can have money, monks can have women, God will be pleased if I sacrifice certain thing. This also includes that one may have attained the right Dharma but he/she may not believe in some of its doctrines and may have prejudicial partiality and believe in contrary doctrines. 3) Sanshayik Mithyätva (Skepticism): Doubting or being skeptical about the Dharma expounded by the omniscient.  Such person cannot decide what is right and what is wrong. 4) Anabhigrahik Mithyätva (Egalitarian - Faith in false Dharma): In this case, he may believe that “this belief is right” and then he/she will change his/her mind that “that belief is right.” One may believe that all religions are true even though They are contradicting. He/she has a non-discriminatory attitude. He/she thinks all religions are equal and acceptable. 5) Anabhogik Mithyätva (Agnostic, Total ignorance, Lack of Knowledge): In this state, one cannot distinguish between the right and wrong and cannot have the right understanding. In this state, he/she does not know that other living beings have an equal soul as we have.


To have an opposite belief about the nine principles (Nav Tattva) is called mithyätva. To believe the truth as the falsehood, to believe the falsehood as the truth, to consider the means  of true happiness as the means of unhappiness, and the those of unhappiness as the means of happiness constitute the wrong belief - mithyätva. Pudgal (material objects) is the root cause of the unhappiness but we treat the material objects as the cause of happiness; and that is mithyätva.


It is said in the Jain canonical books that: to believe non-religion as religion and religion as non-religion, to believe the path of liberation as the wrong path and the wrong path as the path of liberation, to believe the non-living matter as the living beings and the living beings as the non-living matters, to believe the false ascetics as the true ascetics and the true ascetics as the false ascetics, and to believe the non-liberated as the liberated ones and the liberated ones as the non-liberated ones - are the practical characteristics of mithyättva. Because of the wrong belief, Jiva continuously acquires unwholesome Karmas (PÄP). Unless one gets rid of his Mithyätva, he would not be able to adopt the right conduct, and begin the process of Samvar (stoppage of influx of Karma). Because of Mithyätva, the Jiva is trapped in the cycle of birth and death since the time without beginning. The major reason for getting unwholesome Karma is mithyättva. Because of mithyättva, Jiva is unable to recognize his true self - his soul, he is unable to see the difference between the body and the soul, he is incapable of making spiritual progress, he can not reduce his passions (Kashäy), and he continues to acquire the Karmas.


2. Avirati (Vowlessness - Non-abstinence): This is the second entrance for Äsrav . Avirati or vowlessness means not  taking any vow to abstain from sinful activities. Even though we may not commit sins, the absence of vows is a cause for the bondage of Karma. Because not taking a vow or having a desire to commit sin causes the bondage of Karma. If one does not want to commit a sin, then why should he/she hesitate to take a vow to that effect ? If we closely examine the deeper aspects of the minds and hearts of people who do not take vows, we find that they have a desire or leave the door open for wrong desire. The mind thinks: "Though I will not commit this sin, sometimes, by force of circumstances, I may have to commit it. I may commit such a sin. If I take a vow, I will have to face a serious difficulty. So, let it be as it is; let me not take any vow". Therefore, one should take the vows according to his capacity. Avirati or the absence of vows gives way to the pleasures of the senses. The desire for material objects  is Avirati. Vowlessness leads to unrestrained life, and that results in acquisition  of Karmas.


3. Pramäd (Negligence): Pramäd is mainly of five kinds - arrogance, sensual cravings, passions (Kashäy), sleep and engaging in gossiping. In addition, attachment, hatred, ignorance, doubt, illusion, forgetfulness, and other evil activities are the outcome of Pramäd. Indiligence and indifference for true Dharma also constitute the Pramäd. Even after a person takes all necessary vows and becomes a Sädhu, he/she may be subjected to Pramäd from time to time. That state is called Pramatta and when one totally avoids Pramäd,  he becomes an Apramatta Mahämuni. It is more often that a Jain Sädhu goes for and back from Apramatta state to Pramatta state. Pramäd prevents the soul from contemplating about its true nature. One has Pramäd even in the sixth gunasthäna, but there is no Pramäd in the seventh and higher gunasthäna. Pramädi (one who has Pramäd) Jiva can have the wholesome as well as unwholesome  leshyäs, while apramädi (one who does not have Pramäd) Jiva has only wholesome leshyä.. Pramäd is the great entrance of Karmas. Since the time without beginning, Jiva has stayed in Pramäd. He has not been inspired to undertake spiritual  activities. For instance, not having inclination to do sämäyika or swädhyäy is the sign of Pramäd.


4. Kashäy (Passions):  Kash denotes Sansär (material world, cycles of birth and death, world of misery) and Aya means gain. Kashäy is the main cause of the bondage of Karma. Duration and intensity of the bondage of Karma are determined by one’s Kashäy. Anger, ego, deceit, and greed keep us in Sansär, keep us miserable. Therefore, they are called Kashäy. 


Each of these has four kinds (degrees): 1. Life-long (extremely violent) 2. Non-renunciatory (violent) 3. Partially Renunciatory (violence of the middle level) and 4. Flame-like (completely renunciatory). The Präkrutik names given to them are 1. Anantänubandhi Kashäy, 2. Apratyäkhyäni Kashäy, 3. Pratyäkhyäni Kashäy and 4. Sanjwalan Kashäy.


1. Anantänubandhi (Life-Long) Kashäy: This Kashäy binds the soul to endless Sansär. This Kashäy usually lasts more than 12 months to one life or even many lives. It adds bondage to bondage and impels the cycle of life and death to go on endlessly. A person with this kind of Kashäy is in Mithyättva. The intensity of this Kashäy keeps the Jiva under its impact so that he/she will not have even a rational thinking. The Jiva under the influence of this Kashäy commits sins like violence and other evil activities without fear and hesitation. Person with this Kashäy does not have faith (or Samyaktva) in tattvas. Therefore, Anantänubandhi Kashäyas are extremely harmful. First a person destroys this type of Kashäy and then he can develop faith in tattvas. But if the Anantänubandhi Kashäy rearises, it destroys the right faith. 2. Apratyäkhyäniya (non-renunciatory) Kashäy: This Kashäy lasts at least 4 months and up to 12 months. A person under influence of this Kashäy has the right belief but has not yet taken vows to minimize sinful and unnecessary activities. By taking minor vows, he/she overcomes this Kashäy. 3. Pratyäkhyänävarana (partially renunciatory) Kashäy: This Kashäy lasts more than 15 days and up to 4 months. A person under influence of this Kashäy has taken minor vows to minimize sinful and unnecessary activities. 4. Sanjwalan (Flame-like; Totally renunciatory) Kashäy: This Kashäy is of subtle kind and lasts less than 15 days. In this stage, an individual takes total vows and becomes an ascetic. 


These Kashäyas arise in the form of attachment, hatred, enmity (animosity), hostility, arrogance, craftiness, trickery, lust, greed, possessive propensity (partiality), etc. Laughing (joking hasya), improper liking (rati), improper dislike (arati), sorrow (shok), fear (bhaya), disgust (jugupsä) and sexual craving for male, female or both are the milder forms of Kashäy and are known as NoKashäy (subsidiary Kashäy). They generate and intensify other Kashäyas and vice versa..


One experiences Kashäy  even in the tenth gunasthäna, and that remains in existence (power, sattä) up to the eleventh gunasthäna. In the tenth gunasthäna, only Sanjwalan lobha (subtle greed)  remains, and Jiva does not acquire delusive (Mohaniya) Karma. However, Jiva continues to have knowledge obscuring and other Karmas. Until Jiva enters the thirteenth gunasthäna (becomes vitaräg - free of attachments and aversions), he does not stop acquiring unwholesome Karmas. Kashäy is the internal defilement of the soul. .


5. Yoga (Activities): This is the fifth entrance of Äsrav. The activities of mind (man), speech (Vachan) and body (käyä) of the Jiva are called Yogas. There are three types of and 15 subtypes of yoga.


1. ManYoga (Yoga of Mind): There are four type of Mind-Yogas: 1. SatmanoYoga: It means thinking of truth (thinking of an object or its condition as it is in itself). For instance, thinking like "Moksha can be attained only by knowledge accompanied with action." 2. AsatmanoYoga: This means thinking of falsehood (thinking of a thing or its condition in a way that is totally opposite to or different from what it is in itself). For example, thinking like "Activities and austerities are unnecessary for attaining Moksha". 3. Sat-asatmanoYoga: This is a mixed thinking. It involves both, partial truth and partial falsehood. For example, thinking like 'Knowledge itself is enough to attain Moksha". 4. VyavaharmanoYoga: In this kind of thinking, there is neither truth nor falsehood. It is relates to thinking about some routine affair like saying to some person: "You must get up early in the morning".


2. VachanYoga (Yoga of Speech): VachanYoga (activity of speech) has four forms like ManYoga (activity of mind) like speaking the truth about an object is SatvachanYoga. Speaking lies is AsatvachanYoga. Saying something which is partly true and partly untrue is Sat-asatvachanYoga. The examples of VyavaharvachanYoga are utterances like "You go. You come, etc."


3. KäyäYoga (Yoga of body): There are seven kinds of käyäYoga: Human beings and other beings like animals, birds, insects, plants, etc. have the Audärik body. The heavenly beings and the inhabitants of hell have the vaikriya type of body. The Mahämunis (great Jain saints) who, have mastered the shästras (Poorvas), can assume a body that can visit a nearby Tirthankara to get a clarification for their doubts. This type of body is called Ähäraka body. We all Sansäris have taijasa body ( of vital energy)  and kärman body.. These two bodies stay with us until we achieve the liberation. Thus, we have activities of Audärik sharir, vaikraya sharir, ähärak sharir and Karman sharir. We don’t have independent activities of taijasa sharir. The first three bodies can have combined activities with other sharirs. Thus, we have a total of 7 käyäYoga. Thus there are  total 15 Yogas of mind, speech and body. Of them, there are two kinds; namely, the wholesome ones and the unwholesome ones. Truthful speech, truthful thinking and  truthful activities are wholesome Yogas.. All other activities are unwholesome. We attain punya  by  wholesome Yoga and PÄP by unwholesome Yoga.

Types of Äsrav

There are forty-two types of Äsrav as indicated in Tattvartha Sutra by Ächärya Umaswäti, and in Nav Tattva-prakaran - through which the soul is exposed to the inflow of Karmas. Of the forty-two, five relate to senses, four to passions, five to Avirati, three to Yogas, and twenty-five to kriyä.. The first seventeen are regarded as the major ones and the  remaining twenty-five as the minor Äsrav .

6) Samvar (Stoppage of Karma)

The process of stopping the influx of Karma is called Samvar. There are five factors that lead to Samvar: 1. Samyaktva (Right belief), 2. Vrata (Renunciation), 3. Apramäd (vigilance), 4. AKashäy (absence of passions) and 5. AYoga (absence of activities).

Causes of Samvar

1. Samyaktva (Right Belief): To have the true faith is called Samyaktva. Samyaktva is the first step of the journey to Moksha. Infinite number of abhavya (not suitable for achieving Moksha) Jivas are in the state of wrong belief. Similarly, infinite number of bhavya (suitable for achieving Moksha) Jivas are also in the state of wrong belief. If a bhavya Jiva attains the right belief even for a moment, he is assured of Moksha. To attain the right belief, one has to know the Tattvas of Jainism, he has to suppress or eradicate four Anantänubandhi Kashäy. One does not attain the right belief without the proper knowledge of differentiating the soul from the body, called viveka Jnän. In reality, it is difficult to achieve the right belief. If one comes in contact with the true guide and has lighter bondage of Karmas,  he can gain the right belief.


2. Vrata (Renunciation): Vrata is the second factor for Samvar. Once Jiva attains Samyaktva, the next step is to begin renouncing the sinful activities. Shrävak and shrävikäs (householders with Samyaktva) take minor vows, while Jain ascetics (Sädhu and Sädhvis) take total vows. From the point of view of renunciation, both types of vows are acceptable. Therefore, tirth is considered to consist of Shrävaks, shävikäs, Sädhus and Sädhvis. One attracts PÄP because of non-renunciation. By renunciation (Vrata), one stops the sinful activities. Heavenly beings and hellish beings are unable to take vows but the human beings and  some tiryanchas (animals, birds, etc.) are able to take vows. Human beings are able to take total vows, while tiryancha can take only minor vows. Vrata is the process of stopping the Äsrav of Karmas.


3. Apramäd (Vigilance): Inner urge for religion is  Apramäd. When a Tirthankar takes diskshä (initiation), he attains the seventh gunasthäna. Without attaining the seventh gunasthäna, he neither achieves the state of self-restraint nor manahparyavaJnän (knowledge of reading others mind). One must attain the seventh gunasthäna, while taking the complete vows of self-restraint (dikshä). The state of vigilance lasts less than forty eight minutes. The ascetics can attain this state by staying tuned to the soul.


4. AKashäy (Non-passion): The absence of Kashäy is the state of AKashäy. The state of AKashäy is the state of vitarägatä (absence of attachments and aversions). “Kashäy Mukti kil muktireva” -  liberating from passions is the liberation itself. One who liberates himself from Kashäy, attains Moksha.


5. AYoga (Non-activities): To cease activities of body, speech and mind is called “AYoga”. And AYoga is the process of stopping the influx of Karmas. There are no vibration of the soul in the state of AYoga. There is no bondage of Karma in that state. Vitaräg (in the thirteenth gunasthäna) does not have any Kashäy, but he has Yoga. As such, he binds Karma in one Samaya, and sheds it in the next Samaya. This is called the bondage of punya that lasts only for two Samayas.

Types of Samvar

Samvar is of 6 major  types and has 57 subgroups.: 1) Samiti (Carefulness) 2) Gupti (restraint) 3) Yati-Dharma (Dharma of a Jain ascetic) 4) Bhävanäs (mental reflections) 5) Parishahajaya (victory over sufferings) and 6) Chäritra (conduct). Samyaktva is deeply and intimately connected with Samvar. Through Samyaktva, the Äsrav called wrong belief or mithyättva are completely blocked and stopped. By means of Samyak (right) Chäritra and yati-Dharma, the Äsrav called vowlessness is blocked. By means of Gupti, Bhävanäs, and yati-Dharma the Äsrav called passions is blocked. By means of Samiti, Gupti, parishaha-jaya, etc., physiological activities and Pramäd are blocked. By means of Chäritra, the Äsrav called vowlessness, passions, activities are blocked.


Samiti: Samiti means carefulness. There are five samitis. They stipulate utmost vigilance while undertaking any activity so as to avert committing of any wrong or sinful acts. The five samitis are as follows :

(1) To move about cautiously so as not to cause trouble to any living being is called iryäsamiti.

(2) To speak what is true, beneficial, necessary and free from doubt is called bhäshäsamiti.

(3) To act cautiously while procuring  necessities of life like food  is called esanäsamiti.

(4) To receive and place every thing after proper inspection and cleansing is called ädänanikshepasamiti.

(5) To dispose of things such as urine, stool, unused food, and the like, that are of no use, at a place that is free from living beings is called utsargasamiti.


Gupti: Restriction of unwholesome activities of mind, speech and body, and to engage in the wholesome activities is called Gupti  which is an important aspect of Samvar. Since Yoga is of three types the, Gupti also, is of the following three types: (1) To retire from sinful activities of body, and to engage in wholesome activities of body is called käyä-gupti, (2) To retire from sinful activities of speech, and to engage in wholesome activities of speech is called vachan-gupti, (3) To retire from sinful activities of mind, and to engage in wholesome activities of mind is called mano-gupti.


What is the difference between a gupti and a Samiti? In gupti the aspect of refraining is more dominant, while in samiti the aspect of vigilant undertaking  is more dominant.


Yati-Dharma: Kshamä or forbearance, märdava or humility, ärjava or straightforwardness, shaucha or absence of greed (purity of mind), satya or truthfulness, Sanyam or self-restraint, tapas or penance, tyäg or renunciation akinchanya or absence of a feeling of ownership, brahmacharya or celibacy ‑ these ten are the types of supreme Dharma:


(1) Kshamä means forgiveness - forbearance. This means not to allow anger to rise and in case it does, then to render it ineffective through the internal power. For cultivating forbearance five ways have been suggested: (a) by way of considering whether or not the cause of anger lies in oneself, (b) by way of considering the harms that follow from an angry mood, (c) by way of considering the childish  nature of the offender concerned, (d) by way of considering the whole affair to be a consequence of one's own past Karma, and (e) by way of considering the merits of forbearance.


(2) The softness of heart and humility n external conduct is called märdava. For the cultivation of this quality one should not feel egotistical because of his superiority pertaining to race, family, beauty, prosperity, intellect,  knowledge, achievement, and exertion.


(3) The purity of mental makeup ‑ unity of thought, speech and action is called ärjava or straightforwardness. For the cultivation of this quality, one should cease to be deceitful.


(4) Not to have attachment even for the means of Dharma ‑ even for one's own body is called shaucha or absence of greed.


(5) Satya or truthfulness means saying what is beneficial and refraining from harsh words, back-biting, derogatory language, etc.


(6) Self restraint - Sanyam means disciplining mind, speech and body so as not to injure any living beings, and exercising carefulness.


(7) There are six external austerities and six internal austerities that are practiced to eradicate Karmas. They are called tapas or penance.


(8) Renunciation of the possessive attitude for the necessities of life is called tyäga or renunciation.


(9) Not resorting to the attitude of ownership in relation to anything whatsoever is called akinchanya or absence of ownership.


(10) Brahmacharya means continence to be observed by residing with teacher to observe the vows, to learn the scriptures and to erode the passions.


Bhävanä or Deep‑reflection: Bhävanä - deep reflection prevents the tendencies like attachment and aversion. Therefore,  such reflection has been described as a means of Samvar. Bhävana means the contemplation, through which you motivate your soul to carry out lofty reflections. There are 12 types:


1) Anitya Bhävanä: All external substances including the body are transitory (Anitya). They are perishable and therefore, we should not harbor any attachment to them.


2) Asharan Bhävanä: When death occurs and the soul has to leave the body, there is no one who can save a Jiva from that helpless situation. Wealth, family etc. have to be given up at that time. No worldly thing can thus provide refuge; so why should we depend upon them.


3) Sansär Bhävanä: In the cycle of birth and rebirth, mother of one life may become wife in another life, and similarly wife can become mother; and an enemy can become a friend.  How strange and futile is the Sansär? We should not have any attachment to it.


4) Ekatva Bhävanä: "I am alone, I was born alone, I will die alone, I am sick alone, I have to suffer alone, I alone have to experience the consequences of Karmas which I have earned,." Therefore, one should be cautious, and  stay away from attachment and aversion.


 5) Anyatva Bhävanä: "This body is transitory and it is different from me. I am the soul which is not perishable. While the body is perishable. Even wealth, family etc., are not mine. They are different from me, therefore, I detach myself from all these things."


6) Ashuchi Bhävanä: "This body is made up of impure substances. It is being nourished by impure substances. I will discard my attachments to my body, and engage myself in self-discipline, renunciation, and spiritual endeavors."


7) Äsrav Bhävanä: Thinking on inflow of Karmas. All causes that create the inflow of Karmas should be discarded.


8) Samvar Bhävanä: Samvar means blocking of the inflow of Karmas. One must contemplate on Samiti, Gupti, Yati-Dharma etc. One must carry out these activities and try to reduce or stop new bondage of Karma.


9) Nirjarä Bhävanä: Nirjarä means to shed whatever Karmas we have. One must think of the benefits that accrue from each of the 12 kinds of Tapas or the austerities which lead to Nirjarä. One must contemplate on these austerities in order to destroy sins.


10) Bodhidurlabh Bhävanä: One must contemplate how difficult it is to attain the Jain Dharma for the souls that are wandering aimlessly in four destinies. There should not be even the slightest negligence in observing the religion propounded by the Jina."


11) Lokasvabhäva Bhävanä: Lokasvabhäva means one must contemplate on the three Lokas, namely: 1) the upper world, 2) the middle world, 3) the lower world, and also the whole universe filled with souls and pudgals.


12) Dharma Bhävanä: "Oh: Arihant Bhagwän, the omniscient, has expounded an excellent Shrut Dharma and Chäritra Dharma. I will engage myself in that Dharma." One should carry out such contemplation again and again.


Parishaha-jay: Parishahas pertain to the enduring of hardship and while doing so remaining in a state of serenity and equanimity so that all Karmas may be destroyed. They are more prominently followed by Sädhus and Sädhvis. There are 22 types of parishahas: 1) Hunger. A Sädhu must not accept food which is blemished and prepared with any  of the forty-two faults, even if he has to stay hungry. 2) Thirst. A Sädhu should not take sentient water, even if he has to stay thirsty. 3) Cold. Even when it is cold a Sädhu should not wish for heat. 4) Heat. Even when it is hot a Sädhu should not wish for cold. 5) Insect bites. If a Sädhu is bitten by insect while he is meditating, he should not brush it away or become irritated, but should bear it calmly. 6) Clothes. A Sädhu must accept whatever clothes he may receive. 7) A Sädhu must bear evil words told to him. 8) A Sädhu must bear even kicking and beating. 9) A Sädhu must bear diseases that may develop. 10) A Sädhu must sleep on a wooden flat bed or coarse grass. 11) A Sädhu must not take a bath. 12) A Sädhu should wear torn clothes but should not ask for new clothes. 13) A Sädhu should not experience shame or helplessness while going for alms from door to door. 14) If a Sädhu does not get alms, he should not be worried, instead he should think as though he has been given a chance to observe austerity. 15) A Sädhu should not be attracted towards the beauty of women. 16) A Sädhu should not be disturbed by hardship while meditating in a cemetery or other unbecoming places. 17) A Sädhu should not become agitated even when there is suffering. 18) A Sädhu should not become proud while being honored. 19) A Sädhu should not become irritated when getting pricked by thorns, etc. 20) A Sädhu should not feel sorry for not attaining knowledge even after good efforts. 21) If a Sädhu is ignorant and cannot read, he should not become depressed. He must think of karmodaya and must keep his pursuit of knowledge alive. 22) A Sädhu must try to understand the message of the Jina and should never doubt it.


Chäritra or Right Conduct: The endeavor to remain steady in a state of spiritual purity is called Chäritra. Keeping in view the degrees of purity obtaining in different cases,  Chäritra has been divided into the five classes as follows :


(1) To maintain the attitude of equanimity and to give up all impure activities is called sämäyika Chäritra. The remaining four types of Chäritra  are various forms of sämäyika, with certain specialty. The initiation ceremony signifying the initial stage of an ascetic's career, when the period of intended monkshood is brief, is called itvarika or temporary sämäyika, the same ceremony, when the period in question is life long, is called yavatkathita or life long sämäyika.


(2) the ceremony of newly initiated ascetics is repeated with a view to retaining the ascetic's career for the whole life ‑ that is called chhedopasthäpana Chäritra. Similarly, when the initiation ceremony for an ascetic’s career for whole life took place earlier,  but is vitiated by some defect and so has to be undergone again. That is the other case of chhedopasthäpana Chäritra. The first is called niratichara chhedopasthäpana characterized by no failure of conduct, the second is called saticara chhedopasthäpana characterized by a failure.


(3) The third one is characterized by a course of conduct dominated by certain special types of penance and is called parihäravishuddhiChäritra.


(4) The fourth is the case of an aspirant who is in tenth gunasthäna, in which the Kashäyas like anger, ego and deceit do not manifest themselves at all but there is the presence of the subtlest amount of greed. That is called sukshmasamparäyaChäritra.


(5) The fifth relates to the aspirant who is in the eleventh and higher gunasthäna, where  no Kashäy whatsoever manifests and the conduct happens to be as it should be.. That is called yathäkhyäta or vitarägaChäritra.