jEn; Q;m;*n;;e wit;h;s;

p;irc;y;A a;jq;I F;[; hj;r v;{;* p;hel;;] B;;rt;Iy; s;]sk⁢ an;e Q;m;* n;u x;u] sv;Üp; ht;u t;e khev;u] ki@n; %e. p;;]c; hj;r v;{;* p;hel;;] n;;e wit;h;s; j;[;v;;e aeq;I p;[; ki@n; %e. dx; hj;r v;{;* p;hel;;]n;I v;;t; krv;I v;Q;;re dul;*B; %e. x;bd;e b;dl;;w g;y;; %e, iv;c;;rx;r[;I b;dl;;w g;w %e, a;r;e b;dl;;w g;y;;e %e. ae!l;e a; iv;{;y; s;rL; n;q;I. t;k*n;I dun;Iy;;m;;] iv;Sv;;s; oB;;e krv;;e m;uxkel; %e.

p;hel;;] s;]sk⁢ n;;e aq;* s;m;} l;wae. s;]sk⁢ ae!l;e m;n;u{y;n;;e }v;n; }v;v;;n;;e s;]p;U[;* m;;g;*. jud; jud; iv;{;y;;e n;I s;]sk⁢ n;;e aq;* jud;e h;ey; x;ke. s;]sk⁢ n;;] b;;ehL;; aq;*m;;] kL;;, m;;ny;t;;a;e, rIt;-irv;;j;e, x;;eQ;-K;;eL;;e, B;;{;;, iv;N;n; an;e ik>y;;k;]#n;;e s;m;;v;ex; q;;y; %e. G;rn;I s;]sk⁢ h;ey; %e, s;m;;jn;I s;]sk⁢ h;ey; %e, dex;n;I s;]sk⁢ h;ey; %e, a; b;Q;;]n;I as;r a;p;[;; kt;*vy;x;Il;t;;, iv;c;;r;e an;e B;;v;;ee p;r %e. x;;Sv;;t; s;]sk⁢ m;uikt;n;;e m;;g;* b;t;;v;e %e, an;]t; dx;*n;, an;]t; N;n;, an;]t; c;;irFy;, an;]t; a;n;]dn;;e m;;g;* ic;]Q;e %e. a;tm;;n;I s;;Q;n;;n;;] rst;; deK;;#e %e. a;v;; m;;g;*n;e b;t;;v;n;;r, m;eL;v;n;;r, p;;L;n;;rn;;] wit;h;s;n;I hkIkt;n;e jEn;Q;m;*n;;e wit;h;s; khev;;y;, jEn; s;]sk⁢ khev;;y;. jEn;Q;m;*n;; wit;h;s;m;;] s;]s;;r (}v;-a}v;), s;]s;;r-het;u (a;Xv;-b;]Q;), m;;eZ;p;;y; (s;]v;r-in;j*r;) an;e m;;eZ;n;I v;;t;n;e s;m;jn;;r, s;m;j;v;n;;r, p;;L;n;;rn;I v;;t; %e. aev;; j;g;&t; ijn;;en;;, g;uÜa;en;;, s;;Q;u-s;;Q;v;In;;, an;e X;iv;k;-X;v;k;en;; wit;h;s;n;I v;;t; %e.

jEn;Q;m;* p;>m;;[;e iv;Sv;A jEn; Q;m;* p;>m;;[;e iv;Sv; F;[; l;;ekn;u] b;n;el;u %eA â) aQ;;el;;ek (n;rk), ä) m;Qy;l;;ek an;e à) odv;*l;;ek (sv;g;* an;e is;QQ;l;;ek). m;Qy;l;;ek as;]Ky; K;]#;en;u b;n;el;u %e. m;Qy;m;;] j]b;Ui6p;, p;%I G;;t;ikK];# an;e p;U{krv;r. j]b;Ui6p; krt;; G;;t;ikK];# b;e g;[;;e m;;e!;e %e. an;e p;U{krv;r G;;t;ikK];# krt;; b;e g;[;;e m;;e!;e %e. j]b;Ui6p;, G;;t;ikK];# an;e a#Q;; p;U{krv;r m;;]j m;n;u{y; jnm;I x;ke. b;;kIn;;] as;]Ky; K;]#;e m;;] m;n;u{y; n;q;I. j]b;Ui6p;, G;;t;ikK];# an;e a#Q;; p;U{krv;rm;;] b;Q;u m;L;In;e s;;#;b;;r km;*B;Uim;a;e %e. a$I km;*B;Uim; j]b;Ui6p;m;;] %eA B;rt;Z;eF;, aErv;t; an;e a#Q;u iv;dehZ;eF;. a;p;[;e B;rt;Z;eF;m;;] %Iae. a; s;;#;b;;r km;*B;Uim;a;e m;;]q;I b;;r km;*B;Uim;a;e m;;] k;L;c;k> (ot;<s;p;I*[;I an;e av;s;p;I*[;I) c;;l;e %e. aen;;] b;e aQ;*c;k>;e ot;<s;p;I*[;I an;e av;s;p;I*[;I %e. av;s;p;I*[;Im;;] s;u{;m;-s;u{;m;;, s;u{;m;;, s;u{;m;-du{;m;;, du{;m;-s;u{;m;;, du{;m;; an;e du{;m;-du{;m;; a;r;a;e %e. s;u{;m; ae!l;e s;uK; an;e du{;m; ae!l;e duAK;. a;q;I ol!;ek>m; ot;<s;p;I*[;Im;;] %e. drek aQ;*c;k>m;;] % a;r;a;e %e. aty;;re av;s;p;I*[;In;;e p;;]c;m;;e a;r;e c;;l;e %e. iv;dehZ;eF;m;;] h]m;ex;; F;Ij;e a;r;ej c;;l;e %e, ty;;] k;L;c;k> n;q;I. ae!l;e iv;dehZ;eF;m;;] h]m;ex;; airh]t; h;ey;j %e. B;rt;Z;eF;m;;] a; av;s;p;I*[;I aQ;*c;k>n;;] F;Ij; a;r;m;;] P{;B;dev; an;e c;;eq;; a;r;m;;] b;;kIn;;] t;ev;Ix; it;q;*]kr;e q;y;;. a;v;Ij rIt;e ot;<s;p;I*[;I aQ;*c;k>m;;] ol!; k>m;m;;] c;;ev;Ix; it;q;*]kr;e q;x;e. a; k;L;c;k> an;;id k;L;q;I c;;l;e %e an;e c;;l;t;u rhex;e. m;erux;IK;r j]b;Ui6p;n;I m;Qy;m;;] %e. j]b;Ui6p;m;;] kull;e s;;t; Z;eF; %eA B;rt;Z;eF;, aErv;t;Z;eF;, iv;dehZ;eF;, ihm;v;]t;Z;eF;, rmy;kZ;eF;, hirv;{;*Z;eF;an;e aEr[y;v;]t;Z;eF;. odv;*l;;ekn;I s;;Eq;I op;r is;QQ;l;;ek %e jy;;] m;ukt; q;y;el;;] a;tm;;a;e v;s;e %e.

p;;Sv;*n;;q; p;hel;;]n;;e wit;h;s;A B;;rt;n;I p;r]p;r;m;;] b;e s;]sk&it; %eA Xm;[; an;e v;Eidk. kw s;]sk&it; jun;I %e ae v;;d-iv;v;;dn;;e iv;{;y; %e. b;]n;e s;]sk&it;a;e wit;h;s; l;K;;y;;e ae p;hel;;n;I %e. b;]n;e s;]sk&it;a;e 5;iv;# an;e a;y;* s;]sk&it;a;e s;;q;e s;]b;]Q; Q;r;v;e %e. b;]n;e s;]sk&it;a;e v;cc;e ky;;rek s;]G;{;* t;;e ky;;rek m;Il;;v; rhet;;e. b;]n;e s;]sk&it;a;e sv;t;]F; %e. hj;r;e v;{;*q;I aekb;Ij;n;e p;>B;;v;It; kre %e. ae!l;; m;;!e G;[;Iv;;r b;]n;e v;cc;e reK;; d;erv;I m;uxkel; %e. b;]n;e s;]sk&it;a;e K;Ub;j jun;I %e t;em; khev;u]j - an;eek;]t;n;I 5i{!ae - @Ik rhex;e. m;;ehnj;edr;em;;]q;I p;;]c; hj;r v;{;* p;ur;n;I an;e #elfIm;;] dx; hj;r v;{;* p;ur;n;I jEn; m;uit;*a;e m;L;I a;v;I ae jEn; Q;m;* K;Ub;j jun;;e h;ev;;n;I s;;b;Iit; a;p;e %e.

P{;B;dev;n;;] s;m;y;m;;] l;;ek;e j# b;uQQ;In;;] ht;;, g;>h[; s;hel;;wq;I krI x;kt;; n; ht;;. P{;B;dev; F;Ij; a;r;n;; a]it;m; B;;g;m;;] q;y;;. XIm;d< B;;g;v;t;m;;] P{;B;n;;e oll;eK; %e. P{;B; an;e ix;v; aekj ht;; aev;u am;uk wit;h;s;k;r;e m;;n;e %e. F;Ij; a;r;m;;] Q;Ire Q;Ire klp;v;&Z;n;;e p;>B;;v; a;e%;e q;t;;e g;y;;e. ae!l;e k{;;y;;en;;] b;Ij r;ep;;v;; l;;gy;;]. kul;krn;I vy;v;sq;; rc;;n;I. hk;r, m;k;r an;e iQ;kk;rn;I d]# p;QQ;it; sq;p;;n;I. %ell;; kul;kr, n;;B;In;;] p;UF; P{;B;. P{;B;n;e r;j; b;n;;vy;;]. s;m;;j vy;v;sq;;, x;hern;I rc;n;;, F;[; vy;v;s;;y;;e - ais;, m;is; an;e kis; - v;g;ere aisq;tv;m;;] a;vy;u]. Xm;[; Q;m;*n;I x;Üa;t; q;w. Xm;[;n;I an;ek vy;;Ky;; %e. aem;;n;I aekA }s;m;m;[;w n;e[; s;;e s;m;[;;e} - je b;Q;; }v;;en;e t;uly; s;m;je %e ae Xm;[;. jem;; s;m;t;; h;ey; ae s;m;[;.

P{;B;n;e s;;e p;UF;;e ht;;. B;rt; aem;n;;e p;UF; ht;;e. c;k>v;t;I* ht;;e. B;rt; sv;;Qy;;y;m;;] m;;n;t;;e. sv;;Qy;;y; m;;!e X;v;k;en;I m;]#l;I ht;I. aen;e sv;;Qy;;y; m;;!e v;ed;en;I rc;n;; krel;I. v;ed;em;;] X;v;k Q;m;*n;;e oll;eK; %e. B;rt; m;;hn; t;rIK;e p;[; a;eL;K;;t;;e. m;;hn; ae!l;e m;;-hn; ae!l;e ih]s;; n; kre t;e. m;;hn;n;e s;]sk&t;m;;] b;>;É[; khev;;m;;] a;v;e %e. b;>Éiv;~; ae!l;e a;tm;iv;~;. b;>;É[; ae!l;e a;tm;;n;e j;[;e %e t;e.

Xm;[; p;r]p;r;n;; an;ek s;]p;>d;y;;e ht;;A jEn;, b;uQQ;, a;}v;k, g;ErIk, s;;]Ky;, v;g;ere. a;m;;]q;I b;e s;]p;>d;y;;eA jEn; an;e b;uQQ; a;je aisq;tv;m;;] %e. jEn; n;;m; m;h;v;Irn;; am;uk v;{;;e* p;%I p;#y;u]. t;e p;hel;; in;g;nq; t;rIK;e, t;en;; p;hel;; ah*t; Q;m;* an;e t;en;; p;hel;; Xm;[; t;rIK;e a;eL;K;;t;;. (jEn; an;e v;Eidk Q;m;* v;cc;en;; t;f;v;t;, an;e jEn; an;e b;uQQ; Q;m;* v;cc;en;; t;f;v;t;n;I c;c;;*)

p;;Sv;*n;;q; p;%In;;e wit;h;s;A aijt;n;;q; q;I p;;Sv;*n;;q; v;cc;e n;;] s;m;y;e l;;ek;e s;rl; b;uQQ;Iv;;L;; ht;;, s;rl;t;;q;I g;>>h[; krI x;kt;; an;e s;rl;t;;q;I a;c;r;[; p;;L;I x;kt;; ht;;. m;h;v;Irn;; s;m;y;e an;e ae p;%I l;;ek;e t;k*-b;uQQ;I v;;L;; ht;; an;e %e. aeq;I a;c;r[;m;;] s;hel;;wq;I ot;;rI x;kt;; n; ht;; an;e n;q;I. p;;Sv;*n;;q; an;e m;h;v;Ir, b;]n;e wit;h;s;Ik vy;ikt;a;e %e aem;;] x;]k; n;q;I. p;;Sv;*n;;q; (877BC to 777BC) m;h;v;Ir (599BC to 527BC) krt;;] äçî v;{;* p;hel;; q;y;;. b;]n;e n;;e op;dex; aekj ht;;e (g;;Et;m; an;e kex;I n;; m;Il;n;n;I v;;t;). dex;-k;L;n;I isq;t;I p;>m;;[;e ferf;r q;y;el;;. (p;;Sv;*n;;q; an;e m;h;v;Irn;;] op;dex; v;cc;en;;] t;f;v;t;;en;I c;c;;*). jEn; Q;m;*n;;e p;>c;;r hj;r;e v;{;;e* p;hel;; iv;dex;;em;;] q;y;el;;e. Xm;[; Q;m;*m;;] v;>t;;en;u m;htv; %e. p;;Sv;*n;;q;n;e âî g;[;Q;r ht;; an;e m;h;v;Irn;e ââ g;[;Q;r (w]n5B;Uit;, aign;B;Uit;, v;;y;uB;Uit;, vy;kt;, s;uQ;m;;*, m;]i#t;p;UF;, m;;Ey;*p;UF;, ak]ip;t;, ac;l;B;&t;, m;et;;y;* an;e p;>B;;s;) ht;;. m;h;v;Ir p;%I x;;s;n; s;uQ;m;;*sv;;m;I, j]b;Usv;;m;I, p;>B;v;sv;;m;I, x;yy;]m;sv;;m;I, s;]B;Uit;iv;jy;s;Uir, y;x;;eiv;jy;s;Uir, B;5b;;husv;;m;I, sq;Uil;B;5, a;y;*m;h;ig;ir, v;g;ere m;h;p;uÜ{;;eae c;;l;u r;Ky;u]. j]b;Usv;;m;I %ell;; kev;L;N;n;I ht;;. p;%I % Xut;kev;l;I q;y;;, sq;Uil;B;5 %ell;; ht;;. p;%I dx; dx;p;Uv;I* q;y;;. Xei[;kr;j;, t;em;n;; p;UF; aj;t;x;F;U , n;ndv;]x; (324BC s;uQ;I), c;n5g;upt; m;;Ey;* (302BC s;uQ;I) s;uQ;I jEn; r;j;a;en;u x;;s;n; ht;u. p;%I ax;;ekn;;] s;m;y;e (237BC s;uQ;I) b;uQQ;n;u v;c;*sv; ht;u. ax;;ekn;;] p;;eF; s;]p;>it; (237BC s;uQ;I) v;K;t;e jEn; x;;s;n; ht;u. c;n5g;upt; m;;Ey;*n;;] g;uÜ B;5b;;husv;;m;I ht;;. (B;5b;;husv;;m;I an;e sq;Uil;B;5, c;;Ed p;Uv;* x;IK;#;v;v;;n;I v;;t;.) a; s;m;y;e m;h; du{k;l; p;#el;. a; s;m;y;q;I jEn; diZ;[; (B;5b;;husv;;m;I) an;e p;iSc;m; t;rf jv;;] l;;gy;;]. B;5b;;husv;;m;I an;e sq;Uil;B;5n;;] an;uy;;y;Ia;e m;;] B;ed p;#y;;]. jy;;re B;5b;;husv;;m;In;;] an;uy;;y;Ia;e p;;!l;Ip;UF;m;;] p;;%; a;vy;; ty;;re j;ey;u]ke sq;Uil;B;5n;;] n;eF;&tv; n;Ic;e jEn;;e m;;] q;;e#I %U!%;! ht;I, B;5b;;husv;;m;In;I g;erh;jrIm;;] Q;m;* x;;sF;;e l;K;;y;;] ht;;. t;ea;en;e a; %U!%;! an;e x;;sF;;e m;]jUr n; ht;;. km;n;x;Ib;e B;5b;;husv;;m;I diZ;[;m;;] k;L; p;;my;;]. 150BCn;; s;m;y;e migration K;Ub;j v;Qy;u]. a; s;m;y;e non-vedic Q;m;;e*n;e s;;rI t;kl;If p;#I, K;;s; krIn;e m;g;Q;n;I a;s;p;;s;. kl;I]g;;n;; r;j; K;;rv;el; (a;eirss;;n;I a;s;p;;s;) jEn; Q;m;*n;;] op;;s;k ht;;. t;ea;eae jEn;n;e a;v;k;;y;;*. 57BCn;I a;s;p;;s; ojjEn;n;; r;j; iv;k>m;idty; p;[; jEn; Q;m;*n;;] op;;s;k ht;;. a;eirss;;n;I a;s;p;;s; jEn;n;u v;c;*sv; a;e%u q;y;u. jEn; b;Ij; dUrn;; r;j;a;en;I favor m;;!e migrate q;y;;. 100BC q;I AD100 s;uQ;I m;q;ur; jEn;n;u m;uKy; ken5 rYu. m;h;v;Irn;;] in;v;;*[; p;%I êîï v;{;* p;%I jEn; Q;m;*n;;] b;e s;]p;>d;y;;e p;#y;;A Sv;et;;]]b;r an;e idg;]b;r. idg;]b;rn;u m;uKy; ken5 m;h;r;{!M an;e kn;;*!k rYu. Sv;et;;]]b;rn;u v;c;*sv; p;]j;b;, r;jsq;;n; an;e s;;er;{!Mm;;] rYu.(Sv;et;;]]b;r an;e idg;]b;rn;; t;f;v;t;n;I v;;t;)

kn;;*!km;;] l;g;B;g; ëîî v;{;* s;uQ;I jEn;;en;u v;c;*sv; rYu. g;]g;;v;]x; n;; r;j;a;e p;r jEn;Q;m;*n;I as;r s;;rI ht;I. a;j rIt;e Sv;et;;]]b;rn;u x;Üa;t;m;;] v;c;*sv; s;;Ü ht;u. jEn;;eae a;c;;y;* k;l;kn;I b;hen;n;;] d;K;l;; p;%I r;jkIy; b;;b;t;;em;;] B;;g; l;IQ;;e. âäm;I s;dIm;;] kum;;rp;;L; r;j;p;r a;c;;y;* hem;c;]5n;u v;c;*sv; s;;Ü ht;u. s;;Er;{!M, g;ujr;t; an;e a;jub;;jun;;] r;jy;;em;;] aih]s;;n;;e p;>c;;r s;;r;e q;y;;e. }am;;rI}n;I p;>q;; x;Ü q;w. a;jep;[; g;ujr;t;m;;] x;;k;h;rIa;e v;Q;;re %e. diZ;[; an;e p;iSc;m;m;;] jEn;;e K;Ub;j s;m;&QQ; q;y;;. m;ug;l;n;; jm;;n;;m;;] p;[; jEn;s;;Q;ua;eae aih]s;;n;u k;m; ag;> r;K;el;. drek r;jy;;em;;] ih]s;; a;e%I krv;;m;;] a;g;ty;n;;e B;;g; B;jvy;;e. âêm;I s;dIm;;] jEn;s;;Q;u hiriv;jy;s;UrI akb;rn;I n;}k ht;;. p;>;[;I ih]s;; an;e m;;]s;;h;rI K;;er;k a;e%;e kr;v;el;.

âäm;I s;dI p;%I m;usl;Im; an;e v;Eidk Q;m;*n;;e p;>B;;v; K;Ub;j v;Qy;;e an;e a;n;I as;rn;e l;IQ;e B;;rt;m;;] b;uQQ; Q;m;* an;e b;Ij; Q;m;;e* l;g;B;g; a5xy; q;w g;y;;. %t;;p;[; jEn;Q;m;* !ky;;e. a;n;; G;[;; k;r[;;e %e. m;uKy; k;r[; ae %e keA jEn;s;;Q;ua;eae X;v;k;e p;r K;Ub;j Qy;;n; a;py;u, X;v;k;en;I jÜrIy;;t;n;;e s;;r;e Ky;;l; r;Ky;;e, an;ek in;y;m;;e G;#y;;], l;g;B;g; åî g;>]q;;en;I X;v;kQ;m;* m;;!e rcy;;. jy;;re b;uQQ; Q;m;*m;;] fkt; aekj a;v;I rc;n;; %e. X;v;k;en;; a;c;r[; p;r K;Ub;j Qy;;n; a;py;u]. jEn;Q;m;*n;; m;UL;m;;] X;v;k;en;e r;Ky;;]. s;;Q;u an;e X;v;k;e - aekb;Ij; p;r in;B;*r rhe %e. a;q;I s;;Q;u an;e X;v;k;e - aekb;Ij;n;I n;}k rY;. t;ea;eae X;v;k an;e X;iv;k;n;e p;>q;m; m;uky;;]. jEn; s;;r; aev;; s;m;&QQ; ht;;. a;q;I p;[; jEn;Q;m;* a;je s;;r; aisq;tv;m;;] rY;e. jEn;s;;Q;ua;ea;e dex;-k;L;n;I isq;t;In;;e Ky;;l; r;K;In;e, v;EidkQ;m;* p;;L;n;;r s;;q;e b;;YrIt;e B;L;el;; l;;g;e t;e m;;!e vy;v;h;irk }v;n;m;;] ik>y;;-k;]#n;;e s;;r;e s;m;;v;ex; ky;;e*. p;r]t;u m;uL; Q;m;*n;I philosophym;;] kx;;ej ferf;r n; ht;;e ky;;e*. m;uL; Q;m;*n;I philosophyn;e Ky;;l;m;;] r;K;In;e vy;v;h;irk }v;n;m;;] ik>y;;-k;]#n;;e s;m;;v;ex; ky;;e*. diZ;[;m;;] oT;rm;;] rhet;; jEn; krt;; v;Q;;re ferf;r q;y;;.

çm;I an;e ê@I s;dIn;I a;s;p;;s; B;ikt;n;u m;htv; K;Ub;j v;Q;el;, ih]dua;em;;]. K;;s; krIn;e k&{[; an;e r;m;n;I B;ikt; p;r. s;;Q;;r[; l;;ek;e p;r a;n;I s;;rI as;r q;y;el;. jEn; X;v;k an;e X;iv;k;a;e a; p;>v;;hm;;] K;e]]c;;w n;e Q;m;* n;; b;dl;e ae m;;!e jEn;Q;m;*m;;] B;ikt;ik>y;;a;en;;e s;m;;v;ex; v;Q;;rv;;m;;] a;vy;;e. jEn;;eae s;;rI aev;I im;lkt; aek@I krI h;ev;; %t;; âäm;I an;e âàm;I s;dIm;;] s;;rI aev;I t;kl;If B;;eg;v;I. a; s;m;y;e jEn; der;s;r;en;u s;;Ü aev;u K;]#n; q;y;u]. a;v;I t;kl;If v;;L;; an;uB;v;n;e l;IQ;e am;uk jEn;s;;Q;ua;e s;]c;;l;k b;ny;;]. a;v;; s;]c;;l;k s;;Q;ua;en;I - idg;]b;rm;;] B;7;rkn;I an;e Sv;et;;]b;rm;;] c;Ety;v;;s;In;I p;>q;; x;Ü q;w. a; b;]n;e p;>q;;a;eae jEn; s;m;;jn;e aekÜp; krv;;m;;] - s;]g;@It; krv;;m;;] s;;r;e f;L;;e B;jvy;;e ht;;e. %t;;p;[; , a; b;]n;e p;>q;;a;e a;Qy;;itm;k 5i{!ae b;r;b;r n; khev;;y;. a; s;]c;;l;k s;;Q;ua;en;;e power v;Q;I rY;e ht;;e. s;;Q;ua;en;;e K;r;e Q;m;* m;;eZ; m;;g;* deK;;#v;;n;;e an;e meL;v;v;;n;;e %e. a; isq;t;I iv;x;e G;[;; s;;Q;ua;e an;e X;v;k;e j;g;&t; ht;; an;e a; p;irisq;t;In;e s;uQ;;rv;; m;;!e s;;r; s;fL; p;>y;tn;;e ky;;*.

âçm;I s;dIm;;] l;;e]k;x;;h n;;m;n;; aek X;v;k q;w g;y;;. aem;n;e jEn; x;;sF;;en;;e o]#;e aBy;;s; ky;;e*. aem;n;e c;Ety;v;;s;I p;>q;;m;;] an;ek K;;m;Ia;e j;ew. m;uit;*p;Uj;n;;e x;;sF;;em;;] Oll;eK; n; j;ey;;e. aem;n;e m;uit;*p;Uj;m;;] im;qy;;tv; an;e ih]s;; j;eW. l;Zm;I n;;m;n;; aek m;]F;Iae aem;n;;e s;;q; a;py;;e. a; s;m;y;e s;;rI aev;I hl;c;l; q;y;el;I. a;n;; l;IQ;e c;Ety;v;;s;I p;>q;; p;r s;;rI aev;I as;r q;w. a; c;L;v;L;n;e l;IQ;e a;je aek v;g;* j;ev;; m;l;e %e je sq;;n;kv;;s;I (dwellers of halls) t;rIK;e a;eL;K;;y; %e. sq;;n;kv;;s;Ia;e m;uit;*p;Uj;m;;] n;q;I m;;n;t;; an;e x;;sF;;e n;;] aQy;y;n; p;r B;;r m;uke %e. a; c;L;v;L;q;I s;]c;;l;k Sv;et;;]b;r s;;Q;ua;en;u a;c;r[; s;;c;; jEn; s;;Q;ua;e jev;u] q;w g;y;u. t;em;n;I s;]c;;l;k p;>v;&it;a;e aekdm; b;]Q; q;w g;w. âèm;I s;dIm;;] aek sq;;n;kv;;s;I s;;Q;u B;IK;[;} (iB;Z;u) ae iv;c;;y;u* ke s;;Q;u is;v;;y; X;v;k;eae k;ewn;e m;dd n; krv;I j;ewae. m;dd krv;;q;I r;g; b;]Q;;y; %e. aek a;c;;y;*, aek a;c;r[; an;e aek s;]]G; p;r B;;r m;uky;;e. a; iv;c;;rn;e l;IQ;e aek n;v;;e p;]q; x;Ü q;y;;e - t;er;p;]q;. a; s;m;y;n;; t;er;p;]q;Is;;Q;ua;e ae s;;r;e aev;;e p;uÜ{;;q;* ky;;e* %e - dex; an;e s;m;;jn;e s;uQ;;rv;; m;;!e. a;m;;] a;c;;y;* t;ul;s;I ag;ty;n;;e B;;g; B;jv;I rY; %e.

idg;]b;r;em;;] p;[; a;v;I c;L;v;L; oB;I q;w. âêm;I s;dIm;;] p;>Ky;;t; kiv; b;n;;rs;Id;s; q;w g;y;;. ae kundkundn;;] K;;s; an;uy;;y;I ht;;. aem;n;e kundkundn;;] k;m;n;u s;;Ü aev;u] B;;{;; Üp;;]t;r ky;u* %e. t;ea;eae B;7;rk p;>q;;m;;] an;ek K;;m;Ia;e j;ew an;e aen;;e iv;r;eQ; ky;;e*. m;]idr;em;;] an;ek ik>y;;-k;]# a;e%; kr;vy;;]. ful;, fL; an;e im;@;w v;Q;;rv;;q;I q;t;I ih]s;; G;[;I a;e%I kr;v;I. b;n;;rs;Id;s;n;;] an;uy;;y;I p;]i#t; !;ed;rm;l;e B;7;rkn;I influence a;e%I kr;v;I an;e s;m;;jn;e s;;r;e aev;;e j;g;&t; kr;vy;;e.

Sv;et;;]]b;r an;e idg;]b;rn;; t;f;v;t; krt;;] t;ea;em;;] s;rK;;p;[;u G;[;uj v;Q;;re %e. b;]n;e n;; m;uL; Q;m;*m;;] kx;;ej t;f;v;t; n;q;I. ïç !k; krt;; v;Q;;re Q;m;* s;rK;;e %e.

Qy;;n;A km;*n;I in;j*r; m;;!e ê b;;Y an;e ê aBy;;]t;r t;p;;e v;[;*v;;m;;] a;vy;; %e. Qy;;n; ae aek aBy;;]t;r t;p; %e. Qy;;n; c;;r p;>k;rn;; %e, a;t;*, r;E5 (b;]n;ee ax;uB;), Q;;my;* an;e x;ukl; (b;]n;e x;uB;). it;q;*]kr;en;I b;Q;I m;uit;*a;e Qy;;n;m;;] %e. XI p;;Sv;*n;;q;e k;y;;ets;g;*n;I m;u5;m;;] deh %;e#y;;e, XI m;h;v;Ir B;g;v;;n;; }v;n;m;;] Qy;;n; aek K;Ub;j m;htv;n;u a]g; ht;u. t;em;[;e g;;ed;eihk a;s;n;m;;] deh %;e#y;;e. jEn; a;g;m;;em;;] - ot;r;Qy;y;n;, s;UF;k&t;;]g;, B;g;v;t;I s;UF;, sq;;n;;]g;, v;g;erem;;] - B;;v;n;;, a;s;n; an;e Qy;;n;n;;e oll;eK; %e. B;5B;;huae âä v;{;* p;>[;;y;;m; Qy;;n; ky;;*n;;e oll;eK; %e. %t;;p;[; Qy;;n; kev;IrIt;e krv;u] aen;I m;;iht;I a;p;v;;m;;] a;v;I n;q;I. a;c;;y;;e*a;e b;Ij; t;p; p;r s;;r;e aev;;e B;;r m;uky;;e %e p;r]t;u Qy;;n; p;r n;hI. a;n;; kd;c; am;uk k;r[;;e h;ey; x;keA â) Qy;;n;n;e l;IQ;e l;;ek;e Xut; N;n;n;;e a;e%;e l;;B; l;ex;e an;e Xut;N;n; h;ev;u jÜrI %e. ä) g;;ex;;L;;e t;ej;el;bQ;I m;h;v;Ir B;g;v;;n; p;;s;e x;IK;el;;e an;e aen;;e g;erop;y;;eg; ky;;e* - K;Ud B;g;v;;n; m;h;v;Ir p;r. a;q;I durop;y;;eg; n; q;;y; t;e m;;!e Qy;;n; kev;I rIt;e krv;u t;en;;e oll;eK; krv;;m;;] n;q;I a;vy;;e. à) s;;m;;iy;k ae aek Qy;;n; %e. a;m;;] an;e a;v;I b;I} Qy;;n;n;I ik>y;;a;em;;] Qy;;n;B;;v; l;g;B;g; a;e%;e q;w g;y;;e aem; l;;g;e %e. a;c;;y;* ku]dku]de jEn; p;r]p;r;m;;] s;;Q;n;;n;u n;v;u] Z;eF; K;;ely;u]. i6t;Iy; B;5b;;husv;;m;Iae k;y;ets;g;* aQy;y;n;n;;e oll;eK; ky;;e* %e. iv;. ê@I s;dIm;;] ijn;B;5g;i[;ae }Qy;;n; x;t;k} n;;m;n;; g;>]q;n;I rc;n;; krI. å - çm;I s;dIm;;] p;Ujy;p;;d dev;n;]dIae }s;m;;Q;I t;]F;}n;I rc;n;; krI. èm;I s;dIm;;] hirB;5s;Uirae jEn;y;;eg;n;e n;v;I idx;; a;p;I. y;;eg;Iib;]du, y;;eg;5i{!s;m;ucc;y;, y;;eg;x;t;k, y;;eg;v;]ix;k; v;g;ere g;>]q;;en;I rc;n;; krI. ïm;I s;dIm;;] a;c;;y;* ijn;s;en;e }m;h;p;ur;[;}m;;] y;;eg;s;;Q;n;;n;u in;Üp;[; ky;u*. ââm;I s;dIm;;] a;c;;y;* r;m;s;en;e }t;Tv;;n;ux;;s;n;} an;e a;c;;y;* x;uB;c;]5e }N;n;[;*v;}n;I rc;n;; krI. b;]n;e g;>]q;;eae y;;eg; p;r n;v;;e p;>k;x; p;;#y;;e. âäm;I s;dIm;;] a;c;;y;* hem;c;]5}ae y;;eg; x;;sF;n;I rc;n;; krI. a;m;;] y;;eg; an;e rtn;F;Iy;In;I aek;tm;; iv;x;e l;Ky;u]. a;m;;] t;em;n;e p;;et;;n;; an;uB;v;;e vy;kt; ky;;*. âçm;I s;dIm;;] m;uin; s;u]drs;Uir, âèm;I s;dIm;;] iv;n;y;iv;jy;} an;e y;x;;eiv;jy;}ae, v;g;ereae y;;eg; iv;x;e l;Ky;u]. h;l;m;;] a;c;;y;* t;ul;s;In;; m;;g;*dx;*n; n;Ic;e y;uv;;c;;y;* m;h;p;>N}ae K;Ub;j s;m;y;, an;uB;v; an;e s;]x;;eQ;n;n;; a;Q;;re p;>eZ;;Qy;;n; p;QQ;it; x;Ü krI %e.

jEn; a;g;m;;eA ih]dua;e m;;!e g;It;;, m;us;l;m;;n; m;;!e kur;n;. iK;>ist; m;;!e Bible t;;e jEn;n;;e aev;;e ky;;e g;>]q; %e? jEn; m;;!e an;ek g;>]q;;e %e. a;n;e jEn; a;g;m;;e khe %e. Xut;N;n; a; a;g;m;;e m;;] s;m;;y;el;u %e. Sv;et;;]b;r p;QQ;it; p;>m;;[;e êî a;g;m;;e %e. a;g;m;;en;e F;[; B;;g;m;;] v;e]c;v;;m;;] a;vy;; %eA â) p;Uv;*, ä) a]g; an;e à) a]g;b;;Y. B;;{;; aQ;*m;;g;Q;I %e. jEn; x;;sF;;en;u m;uly; p;iSc;m;n;; iv;d<v;;n;;eae K;ub;j o]c;u a;]ky;u %e. c;;Ed p;Uv;;e* m;;]q;I a;je k;ew g;>]q; hy;;t; n;q;I. a; p;Uv;;e*n;;e s;m;y; p;;Sv;*n;;q; s;uQ;I j;y; %e. p;Uv;;e*n;u sv;Üp; Xut; ht;u. B;g;v;;n; m;h;v;Irn;; op;dex;n;e a;Q;;irt; ht;;. g;[;Q;r;eae aen;I vy;v;isq;t; rc;n;; krel;I. m;;e!;B;;g;n;;e op;dex; âä a]g;;em;;] m;L;I a;v;e %e aev;u] am;uk iv;d<v;;n;;en;u m;;n;v;u] %e. âäm;;e a]g; 5i{!v;;d a;je hy;;t; n;q;I. âå p;Uv;;e*n;;] j;[;k;r am;ukj ht;;. %ell;; j;[;k;r sq;Uil;B;5 ht;;. p;Uv;;e*n;I B;;{;; s;]sk&t; ht;I an;e aem;;] p;uÜ Xut; N;n; ht;u]. s;;m;;ny; l;;ek;en;I s;m;jm;;] a;v;e ae!l;e a]g; an;e a]g;b;;Yn;I rc;n;; krv;;m;;] a;v;el;I aem; am;uk iv;d<v;;n;;en;u m;;n;v;u %e. idg;]b;r;eae 5i{!v;;dn;;e am;uk B;;g; s;;c;v;el;;e %e. aem;;q;I ïm;I s;dIm;;] {;!<K;]#;g;m; an;e k{;;y;p;>;B;&t;n;I rc;n;; krv;;m;;] a;v;I %e. a; palm leaves p;r l;K;v;;m;;] a;vy;;e %e. !Ik;a;e s;;q;e l;g;B;g; âäî,îîî g;;q;;a;e l;K;;y;el;I %e. q;;e#; v;{;;e* p;hel;;] a; b;e g;>]q;;en;u editing krI publish krv;;m;;] a;vy;;] %e. t;ea;en;I m;;ny;t;; p;>m;;[;e âä a]g;;e an;e âå a]g;b;;Y %e, an;e b;Q;; n;{! p;;my;; %e. p;r]t;u Sv;et;;]b;r;e ae p;[; G;[;uj s;;ihty; s;;c;vy;u] %e. m;h;v;Ir in;v;;*[; p;%I l;g;B;g; âêî v;{;* p;%I p;;!l;Ip;UF;m;;] p;hel;I p;ir{;d B;5b;;hun;I g;erh;jrIm;;] an;e sq;uil;B;5n;; n;eF;utv; n;Ic;e B;r;y;el;I, an;e m;;e!;B;;g;n;; a;g;m;;e s;c;v;;y;el;;. l;g;B;g; åq;I s;dIn;I x;Üa;t;m;;] m;q;ur;m;;] sk]idl;n;; n;eF;utv; n;Ic;e an;e s;;Er;{!Mm;;] v;ll;B;Im;;] n;;g;;ju*n;n;; n;eF;utv; n;Ic;e judI judI p;ir{;d;e B;r;y;el;. an;e m;;e!;B;;g;n;; a]g;;e an;e ag;b;;Y s;c;v;;y;el;;. fkt; âå p;Uv;;e* an;e âäm;u a]g; 5i{!v;;d g;um;;v;el;. km;n;x;Ib;e sk]idl; an;e n;;g;;ju*n; aekb;Ij;n;e m;L;I x;kel; n;hI. à } an;e %ell;I p;ir{;d s;;Er;{!Mm;;] v;ll;B;Im;;], çm;I s;dIm;;], m;h;v;Ir in;v;;*[;n;; ïèî v;{;* p;%I, dev;iQ;*g;i[;n;; n;eF;utv; n;Ic; B;r;y;el; an;e b;Q;;j g;>]q;;en;u final sv;Üp; ahI]j ap;;y;el;u] %e. a; rIt;e Sv;et;;]b;r;e p;;s;e G;[;u s;;ihty; s;;rI dx;;m;;] %e. Sv;et;;]b;r p;QQ;it; p;>m;;[;e a;je åç a;g;m;;e %e. ââ a]g; (âäm;;e a]g; - 5i{!v;;d n;q;I) an;e àå a;]g;b;;Y (âä op;;]g;, å m;Ul;s;UF;, ê %eds;UF;, âî p;>kI[;*k an;e ä c;Uil;k;) %e. sq;;n;kv;;s;I p;QQ;it; p;>m;;[;e àä a;g;m;;e %eA ââ a]g; (âäm;;e a]g; - 5i{!v;;d n;q;I) an;e äâ a]g;b;;Y. idg;]b;r;en;; m;t; p;>m;;[;e âä a]g;;e an;e âå a]g;b;;Y %e, an;e b;Q;; n;{! p;;my;; %e. t;ea;e ku]dku]dn;; g;]>q;;en;e ag;> sq;;n; a;p;e %e. âä a]g;n;; j;[;k;rn;e 6;dx;;]g;I khe %e. a]g;;en;I rc;n;; Xut;kev;L;Ij kre. a]g;;en;e Xut;p;uÜ{;;en;; a]g;;e s;;q;e s;rK;;v;v;;m;; a;vy;; %e. a]g;;en;I l;K;;[;iv;iQ; v;ed;e p;%I q;w, p;r]t;u s;;ihty; G;[;uj jun;u %e. a]g;;e B;g;v;;n; m;h;v;Irn;; op;dex;n;u Üp;;]t;r %e. m;h;v;Irn;; s;m;y;e rc;v;;m;;] a;v;el;; an;e m;h;v;Ir an;e aem;n;; p;hel;;n;; it;q;*]kr;en;; op;dex;m;;] k;ew frk n;; ht;;e. a]g;b;;Y iv;iv;Q; g;>]q;;en;;e s;]g;>h %e an;e aen;I rc;n;; sq;iv;r;e an;e m;h;n; p;uÜ{;;eae krel;I %e (g;[;Q;r;eae n;q;I krI). a]g;;em;;] Xm;[;, im;qy;;, Jain doctrine an;e X;v;k;e iv;x;e l;Ky;u] %e. op;;]g;;em;;] m;;e!e B;;g;e X;v;k;e m;;!e l;Ky;u %e. m;Ul;s;UF;;em;;] n;v;idiZ;t; s;;Q;u-s;;Qv;Ia;en;e m;Ul;m;;] r;K;In;e l;K;el; %e. %eds;UF;;em;;] s;;Q;u-s;;Qv;Ia;en;; in;t;I-in;y;m;;e %e, iv;n;y;n;; g;>]q;;e %e. p;>kI[;*k ae!l;e iv;iv;Q; (miscellaneous) iv;{;y;;e iv;x;en;; g;>]q;;e. c;Uil;k; ae!l;e appendix.

any; f;L;;a;eA jEn; s;]sk&it; ae v;>t;;en;I s;]sk&it; %e, m;uikt; m;;g;*n;I s;]sk&it; %e, kL;; - kL;;n;e m;uikt; m;;g;*n;I s;;q;e k;ew s;]b;]Q; n;q;I. P{;B;dev;e p;uÜ{;;e m;;!e ëä an;e sF;Ia;e m;;!e êå kL;;a;e n;u in;Üp;[; krel;. a;m;;] g;i[;t;, l;eK;, ic;F;, n;&ty;, g;;y;n;, k;vy;, v;g;eren;;e s;m;;v;ex; q;;y; %e. ic;F;kL;; p;[; K;Ub;j iv;Ky;;t; ht;I. ic;F;kL;;ae wit;h;s; s;;c;v;v;;m;;] ag;ty;n;;e f;L;;e B;jv;el; %e. jEn;;en;I il;ip;kL;; an;e m;Uit;*kL;; p;[; K;ub;j iv;Ky;;t; %e. del;v;;#;n;; der;s;r;eA P{;B;dev;n;u der;s;r s;;el;]kI n;; m;]F;I iv;m;L;x;;he âîàäm;;] b;]Q;;vy;u], B;g;v;;n; n;eim;n;;q;n;u der;s;r v;st;up;;l; an;e t;ejp;;l;, b;e B;;wa;eae âäàäm;;] b;]Q;;vy;u], s;mm;ed ix;K;rA aty;;re p;;Sv;*n;;q;n;I hillq;I a;eL;K;;y; %e. ahI] äî it;q;*]kr;e in;v;;*[; p;;my;; %e. x;F;u]jy;A P{;B;dev;n;u B;vy; m;]idr %e. a;n;e s;;Eq;I jun;u it;q;* m;;n;v;;m;;] a;v;e %e. G;[;; B;vy; der;s;r;e %e. an;ek Q;m;*x;;L;;a;e %e. r;j; kum;;rp;;L;e s;;r;e aev;;e ijn;;e*QQ;;r krel; %e. aih]a; an;ek p;>is;QQ; m;uin;a;e k;L; p;;m;el; %e. X>v;[;b;el;g;;el;;A ahI] çë fU!n;I o]c;I g;;em;!eSv;r b;;hub;l;In;I m;uit;* a;v;el; %e. aen;I sq;;p;[;; âîäèm;;] q;y;el;. a;n;e g;;em;! it;q;* khe %e. ahI] l;g;B;g; çîî ix;l;;l;eK; %e. r;[;kp;urA a; der;s;r Q;r[;;x;;he âåïèm;;] b;]Q;;vy;u]. b;ej;e# der;s;r %e. a;m;;] äå r]g;m;]#p;, âèå B;Ug;&h, èç ix;K;r an;e âååå q;;]B;l;; %e. a;idn;;q;n;I m;Uit;* k;ewp;[; q;;]B;l;; p;;s;eq;I j;ew x;k;y; %e. b;Ij; a;v;; an;ek sq;l;;e %e. a; op;r;]t; an;ek jEn; s;;ihty;k;r;e an;e kiv;a;e q;w g;y;;. Jains are essentially people of books. jEn; l;;ek;en;;e vy;v;s;;y; / v;;i[;jy;m;;] G;[;;ej s;m;&QQ; f;L;;e a;py;;e %e. aem;n;I p;>m;;i[;kt;; K;Ub;j p;>Ky;;t; ht;I an;e %e. çî !k;q;I v;Q;u p;Es;;e aem;n;; h;q; n;Ic;eq;I jt;;e aem; wit;h;s;k;r;en;u] khev;u] %e. a;Q;uin;k iv;N;n;n;I x;;eQ;K;;eL;;e jEn; Q;m;*m;;] khel;I v;;t;;en;e v;Q;u m;L;t;I a;v;e %e.

op;s;]h;rA jEn; Q;m;* G;[;;ej p;>;c;In; %e an;e b;Ij; Q;m;;e*q;I sv;t;]F; %e. hj;r;e v;{;;e* p;%I p;[; jEn; Q;m;*n;u m;uKy; sv;Üp; b;dl;;[;u n;q;I. a;n;;e Xey; an;ek m;h;n; g;[;Q;r;e, sq;iv;r;e, a;c;;y;;e*, s;;Q;u, s;;Qv;Ia;e, X;v;k an;e X;iv;k;n;e j;y; %e. s;]p;>d;y;;e fkt; à q;I ç !k;n;; b;;Y t;f;v;t;;en;e l;IQ;e %e. p;r]t;u drek jEn; s;]p;>d;y;;en;;e s;]dex; aekj %e, a;tm;x;uiQQ;m;;!e. b;Q;; s;]p;>d;y;;e l;g;B;g; ïç !k; s;rK;; %e. Theory, philosophy an;e a;tm;x;uiQQ;n;;e (a;]t;irk) approach (m;;g;*) aekj %e. jEn; Q;m;* drek B;;rt;Iy; vy;ikt;n;; m;n;m;;] ijn; m;Uit;* ae x;;]it; an;e Qy;;n;n;u p;>it;k %e, aev;I aek image oB;I kre %e. jEn; Q;m;*n;I den; aih]s;;, an;ek;]t;v;;d an;e ap;irg;>hn;I a; iv;Sv;n;e %e. a;j den; jEn; Q;m;* p;;L;n;;rn;I a; s;m;;jn;e %e. sF;I an;e p;uÜ{;;en;e s;rK;;e a;Qy;;itm;k hk %e. drek }v; s;m;;n; %e. j;it;-N;it;n;;e B;ed n;q;I. XIm;dM r;jc;]5n;; d;d; v;ES[;v; ht;; an;e m;;t;uXI sq;;n;kv;;s;I jEn; ht;;. ae aek m;h;n; jEn; vy;ikt; q;w g;y;;. m;h;tm;; g;;]Q;I p;r aih]s;;n;I as;r krn;;r XIm;dM r;jc;]5} ht;;], ae jEn; Q;m;*n;I den; %e. jy;;re m;h;tm;; g;;]Q;In;I Q;m;*p;rn;I XQQ;; #g;m;g;t;I ty;;re XIm;dM r;jc;]5}n;I s;l;;h l;et;;. jEn; Q;m;*n;I a;Qy;;itm;kt;; fkt; n;;n;; jEn; v;g;*m;;!e n;q;I p;r]t;u s;;r; iv;Sv; m;;!e %e. aek idv;s; jEn; Q;m;* iv;Sv;n;; drek m;n;u{y;n;e sp;x;*e - %Us;e aev;I a;x;; r;K;Iae.. a;q;I a;K;; iv;Sv;n;u kly;;[; q;w jx;e.

References: a;c;;y;* t;ul;s;I an;e y;uv;;c;;y;* m;h;p;>Nn;;] p;ust;k;e an;e s;m;[; Xut;p;>N}n;; v;;t;;*l;;B;;e, "Jaina Path of Purification" by P. S. Jaini; "Outlines of Jainism" by Jagmanderlal Jaini

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